Heritage

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology in Loma Linda University

Julia WhiteThe first faculty member who taught Physiology in Loma Linda University was Julia A. White, MD, (she was the first Head of Nursing Program) in 1906. The first faculty member to teach Pharmacology was Edward H. Risley, MD, in 1915. There were lectures on physiological therapeutics and Materia Medica before 1915 that were overlapped with Pharmacology. During this period Loma Linda University was called the Loma Linda Sanitarium and the College of Medical Evangelists (CME). In 1910, the equipment for Physiology had been improved by the addition of about twenty of Nystrom’s charts, which cost four dollars each.

Julia A. White, MD, taught Physiology in 1906 and then in 1908. Lillis Wood-Starr, MD, taught Physiology for one year in 1907. Archibald W. Truman, MD, taught Physiology from 1909 to 1914. From 1911, Archibald W. Truman, MD, taught Physiology to medical and nursing students.

From 1915, the term “Teaching Departments” appeared in the Bulletin of the College of Medical Evangelists. Sanford P. S. Edwards, MD, became the first Head of Department of Physiology. Edward H. Risley, MD, became the first Head of Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology.

Sanford EdwardsIn 1916, Loma Linda began to issue rank to faculty members. Sanford P. S. Edwards, MD, was the first Professor and Head of the Department of Physiology. Archibald W. Truman, MD, who taught Physiology since 1909 became the first Professor of Neurology. Edward H. Risley, MD, was the first Professor and Head of the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology.

Arthur N. Donaldson, MD, was the first Instructor in Physiology in 1916. In 1917, Arthur N. Donaldson, MD, became the first Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Physiology. Dr. Donaldson was the first faculty member promoted to Professor of Physiology in 1918.

In the early years, Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists underwent many structural changes including the names of departments. The Department of Physiology became the Department of Physiology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics in 1919 with Arthur N. Donaldson, MD, as Professor of Physiology and Head of Department. Mary C. McReynolds, MD, was the first Instructor in Physiological Therapeutics and Frederick Bulpitt, MD, was the first Instructor in Materia Medica and Therapeutics. The Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology was reduced into the Department of Chemistry with Edward H. Risley, MD, as Head.

Frederick Bulpitt, MD, was the first Assistant Professor of Therapeutics in 1920. Fred B. Moor, MD, became the first Instructor in Pharmacology and Physiological Therapeutics in 1921. Then he became the first Assistant Professor in Therapeutics in 1923. John J. Weir, MD, was the first Assistant Professor of Physiology in 1922.

The Department of Physiology, Materia Medica and Therapeutics changed its name again in 1922 to be the Department of Physiology and Therapeutics with Arthur N. Donaldson, MD, as Professor of Physiology and Head of Department.

In 1925, the Department of Physiology and Therapeutics was separated into the Department of Physiology with Arthur N. Donaldson, MD, as Professor and Head of Physiology. A new Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics was formed with Fred B. Moor, MD, as Professor of Therapeutics and Head of the Department. In 1925, Walter E. Macpherson, MD, became the Instructor of Physiology and then Assistant Professor of Physiology in 1927.

Walter MacPhersonIn 1928, Walter E. Macpherson, MD, was named as Associate Professor of Physiology and Acting Head of Physiology. Dr. Macpherson became the Professor and Head of Physiology in 1929 and as Professor of Physiology and Department Advisor in 1936.

Kenneth E. Kellogg, MD, was named Instructor of Physiology in 1936, Assistant Professor in 1944, Associate Professor and Head of Physiology in 1946, and Professor and Head of Physiology in 1949.

In 1944, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics changed to the Department of Therapeutics with Fred B. Moor, MD, as Professor of Therapeutics and Head of the Department.

The first independent building for Physiology and Pharmacology was built in 1936, and was named the Edward Risley Hall in 1959. The portrait in the foyer of the Risley Hall is a painting of Edward Risley, MD. This painting is in good condition but needs a plate of description.

In 1950s, in order to remove the “confidential probation” status, the Board of Trustees accepted President Walter E. Macpherson’s (Physiology Chair/Advisor from 1928-1945) recommendation that non-Adventists could be employed as department heads if they were fully qualified scientifically, and if they tolerated SDA beliefs and lifestyle. Subsequently Charles M. Gruber, MD, PhD, and J. Earl Thomas, MD, were hired as Heads for the Departments of Pharmacology and Physiology respectively. Both of these non-Adventist faculty members were retired chairmen at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Dr. Thomas converted to the SDA faith in later years.

Roscoe Bartlett, MD, was an Instructor and later Assistant Professor in the Department of Physiology from 1952-1954 before he moved away from Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists. He is currently a representative of the United States Congress from Maryland.

In 1953, the Department of Therapeutics changed to Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics with Charles M. Gruber, MD, as Professor and Head of the Department. About half of the faculty members in the original Department of Therapeutics followed Fred B. Moor, MD, and formed a new Department of Physiological Therapeutics, which focused more on rehabilitation medicine.

Transition affected the Department of Physiology as well but in a more civil manner. In 1954, Kenneth E. Kellogg, MD, was Professor but became the Acting Head of Physiology before the arrival of J. Earl Thomas, MD, as the Head of Department.

In 1955, Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists began to use the title Chairman instead of Departmental Head. Charles M. Gruber, MD, was the first Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Kenneth E. Kellogg, MD, became the first Professor and Acting Chairman of the Department of Physiology. The contribution of Kenneth E. Kellogg, MD, to the Department of Physiology was recognized by naming the Risley Theater as “Kenneth E. Kellogg Amphitheater.” A copper plate is still in place outside of the Kellogg Amphitheater.

J. Earl Thomas, MD, joined Loma Linda University in 1956 to serve as Professor and Acting Chairman of the Department of Physiology. J. Earl Thomas, MD, was named the first Chairman of the Department of Physiology in 1959.

Several new faculty members joined the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in the 50s. Mervyn G. Hardinge, MD, PhD, joined the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in 1954 as Associate Professor. Ian Fraser, PhD, became Assistant Professor of Pharmacology in 1955.

Charles BruberAfter serving four years as the Chairman of Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Charles M. Gruber, MD, retired and the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics changed to the Department of Pharmacology and Mervyn G. Hardinge, MD, PhD, was promoted to Professor and Chairman in 1957.

 

Edward Risley Hall FireTwo major things happened in the 60s. In 1961, the Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists was renamed to the Loma Linda University. In 1964, a big fire burned down the Edward Risley Hall. The first floor was renovated as well as the basement, but the second floor was permanently demolished. Groundbreaking was initiated in 1964 for the Department of Biochemistry, which used to be located on the second floor of the Edward Risley Hall.

After about ten years of consistent development, more structural changes occurred in the 60s. J. Earl Thomas, MD, retired. One copper plate is located by the door of the now Neuroscience Laboratory: “J. Earl Thomas Laboratory: Physiology and Biophysics,” which was dedicated in 1966 for the retirement of J. Earl Thomas, MD.

The Department of Physiology became the Department of Physiology & Biophysics in 1966 with Clarence R. Collier, MD, as Professor and Chairman, who joined the Department of Physiology in 1957 as Associate Professor. Kenneth A. Arendt, MD, joined the Department of Physiology as Instructor in 1957.

There were many faculty members who joined the Department of Physiology in the 60-70s. J. Mailen Kootsey, PhD, became Instructor of Physiology in 1965 and became Assistant Professor in 1968. John Leonora, PhD, joined the Department of Physiology in 1963 as Assistant Professor and became Professor in 1970. Lawrence D. Longo, MD, joined the Department of Physiology in 1969 as Professor.

Several faculty members from the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology moved into higher administration positions. Edward Risley, MD, became the President of CME (1927-1928) and Walter Macpherson, MD, became the Dean of Medical School in 1935-1942, the president of CME from 1942-1948, then the president of CME again from 1951-1954. Mervyn G. Hardinge, MD, PhD, was the founding Dean of the School of Public Health at Loma Linda University in 1967.

Mervyn HardingeAfter Mervyn G. Hardinge, MD, PhD, moved to the School of Public Health, Ian Fraser, PhD, became Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pharmacology in 1967. Ian Fraser, PhD, became Vice President for Academic and Research Affairs and later University Executive Vice President in Loma Linda University.

The late 60s were years of change in the Department of Physiology & Biophysics. Clarence R. Collier, MD, served for two years as chairman of the Department of Physiology & Biophysics. He was replaced by Kenneth A. Arendt, MD, as the Interim Chairman of the Department of Physiology & Biophysics in 1969, which did not last long, however.

Lawrence LongoAn important restructuring of the Department of Physiology & Biophysics occurred around 1969 as Lawrence D. Longo, MD, established the Center for Perinatal Biology and several NIH funded members of the Department of Physiology & Biophysics joined this center, with Dr. Longo as the Center Director. This center became a world class research center for perinatal studies over the years and has been the most important research institute for Loma Linda University. In the same year, Loma Linda witnessed the most damaging flood since 1916.

The Department of Physiology & Biophysics and Department of Pharmacology merged into one department in 1970 as the Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Biophysics with Ian M. Fraser, PhD, as Chairman of the Department and Kenneth A. Arendt, MD, as Cochairman. In the same year, the city of Loma Linda was established.

Richard NixonIn 1971, President Richard M. Nixon visited Loma Linda’s campus, accompanied by Congressman Pettis and California governor Ronald Reagan to announce the government’s decision to build a new Veterans Administration hospital in Loma Linda. After the Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Medical Center in Loma Linda was opened in 1977, several researchers including Subburaman Mohan, PhD, from this Veterans Medical Center joined the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology.

In 1973, the Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Biophysics changed again to Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, which exists to 2008. Ian M. Fraser, PhD, was Chairman of the Department and Kenneth A. Arendt, MD, was Cochairman.

In 1975, John Leonora, PhD, became the Cochairman of the Department with Ian M. Fraser, PhD, as the Chair. During their twenty years service, the Department expanded rapidly and many faculty members with clinical appointments joined. This was probably the most smooth, peaceful, and productive time for the department. W. Ross Adey, MD, and Lawrence D. Longo, MD, were named the Distinguished Professors in Physiology in 1975.

Steven Yellon1980-1990 were also the period that many young faculty members joined the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. Steven Yellon, PhD, joined the Departments of Physiology and Pediatrics in 1985. Daisy DeLeon, PhD, and Marino DeLeon, PhD, joined Physiology and John Buchholz, PhD, joined Pharmacology in early 90s.

In 1999, Ian Fraser, PhD, retired and J. Mailen Kootsey, PhD, became the Chairman for the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology. John Leonora, PhD, remained as Co-chairman.

After J. Mailen Kootsey, PhD, was removed from the chair position, Lawrence Sowers, PhD, became the Acting Chairman for the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology in 2001, besides his other appointments as Associate Dean for Research and Chairman for the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology. No Cochairman was appointed. The Associate Dean for Education Leonard Werner, MD, was appointed as Associate Professor of Physiology and Pharmacology. In addition, Ian M. Fraser, PhD, was honored as the Distinguished Emeritus Professor in Pharmacology.

Daisy DeLeon
Daisy DeLeon
John Buchholz
John Buchholz
Steven Yellon
Steven Yellon
John Zhang
John Zhang

In 2003, the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology was divided into two Divisions. Daisy DeLeon, PhD, was appointed as the Associate Chairwoman for Physiology. John Buchholz, PhD, was named the Associate Chairman for Pharmacology.

In 2004, Steven Yellon, PhD, served as Interim Associate Chairman for Physiology.

In 2004, John H. Zhang, MD, PhD, joined the Departments of Neurosurgery and Physiology & Pharmacology and began to serve as Associate Chairman for Physiology in 2006.

Marion DeLeon PHDA major event in 2006 was the establishment of the New Center of Health Disparities with Marino DeLeon, PhD, as the Director.

For all current members of the Department of Physiology and Pharmacology in 2006, Lawrence D. Longo, MD, Gordon G. Power, MD, Raymond G. Hall, Jr. PhD, and C. Raymond Cress, PhD, joined the department in 1969, Raymond F. Gilbert, PhD, joined in 1976, David A. Hessinger, PhD, in 1979, William J. Pearce, PhD, in 1983, Steven M. Yellon, PhD, in 1985, Charles A. Ducsay, PhD, in 1987, Daisy D. DeLeon, PhD, Marino A. DeLeon, PhD, Lubo Zhang, PhD, John H. Buchholz, PhD, in 1992, Danilyn Angeles, PhD, Jiping Tang, MD, John H. Zhang, MD, PhD, in 2004, and Eileen Brantley, PhD, joined the department in 2006.

In 2013, NIH funded the Center for Neuroscience Research which was established with John H. Zhang, MD, PhD, as the Director.